Concise Review: Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators and Receptors in Stem Cell Biology
Romano M, Patruno S, Pomilio A, Recchiuti A.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2019 Jun
Accumulating evidence indicates that stem cells (SCs) possess immunomodulatory, anti‐inflammatory, and pro‐healing properties. The mechanisms underlying these functions are being investigated with the final goal to set a solid background for the clinical use of SCs and/or their derivatives. Specialized pro‐resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) are small lipids formed by the enzymatic metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. They represent a leading class of molecules that actively and timely regulate the resolution of inflammation and promote tissue/organ repair. SC formation of these mediators as well as expression of their receptors has been recently reported, suggesting that SPMs may be involved in the immunomodulatory, pro‐resolving functions of SCs. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on SPMs in SCs, focusing on biosynthetic pathways, receptors, and bioactions, with the intent to provide an integrated view of SPM impact on SC biology.